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Table of contents

 

PREFACE

xi

 

Prologue / The Granite Garden

3

 

PART I CITY AND NATURE

 

 

Chapter 1 / City and Nature

9

 

Urban Nature and Human Design

11

 

Boston: A Natural Environment Transformed

14

 

The Search for Nature: Park, Suburb, and Garden City

29

 

PART II AIR

 

 

Chapter2 / Dirt and Discomfort

41

 

Poisons in the Air

43

 

Inversions and Stagnant Air

46

 

Gusts and Lulls

51

 

The Urban Heat Island

52

 

A Mosaic of Microclimates: Street Canyons, Plazas, and Parks

55

 

Chapter 3 / Improving Air Quality, Enhancing Comfort, and Conserving Energy

62

 

Sun, Winds, and Emissions

63

 

Improving the Air along Streets and Highways

67

 

Creating More Comfortable Parks and Plazas

74

 

Designing a Cleaner, More Comfortable, and Energy-Efficient City

77

 

A Plan for Every City

85

 

PART III EARTH

 

 

Chapter 4 / Shifting Ground and Squandered Resources

91

 

Shifting Ground

92

 

Squandered Resources

101

 

Contaminated and Compacted Land

102

 

Chapter 5 / Finding Firm Ground and Exploiting Resources

109

 

Forces of Earth, Water, and Gravity

110

 

Finding Firm Ground

111

 

Conserving and Exploiting Resources

118

 

Designing a Safer, More Economical City

122

 

A Plan for Every City

124

 

PART IV WATER

 

 

Chapter 6 / Floods, Droughts, and Poisoned Water

129

 

Increased Floods

130

 

Poisoned Water

134

 

Dwindling Water Supplies

138

 

Chapter 7 / Controlling and Restoring the Waters

142

 

Water in Motion

144

 

Storing Floodwaters

145

 

Restoring and Conserving Water

150

 

Designing the City to Conserve and Restore Water and to Prevent Floods

154

 

A Plan for Every City

166

 

PART V LIFE

 

 

Chapters 8 / Urban Plants: Struggle for Survival

171

 

A Vanishing Legacy

172

 

Hostile Habitats

175

 

An Expensive Aesthetic

179

 

Chapter 9 / Nurturing the Urban Biome

184

 

The Necessities of Life

185

 

Nurturing City Plants

188

 

Exploiting Urban Wilds

195

 

Designing the Urban "Forest"

202

 

A Plan for Every City

204

 

Chapter 10 / Pets and Pests

207

 

Impoverished and Fragmented Habitats

208

 

Wildlife as a Nuisance

211

 

Chapter 11 / Designing Wildlife Habitats

215

 

Food, Water, Cover, and Territory

216

 

Creating Viable Habitats

218

 

Designing the Metropolis for Wildlife

223

 

A Plan for Every City

225

 

PART VI THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM

 

 

Chapter 12 / The City as an Infernal Machine

229

 

The Costs of Waste

231

 

Unforeseen Consequences

235

 

Chapter13 / Designing the Urban Ecosystem

242

 

Pathways of Energy and Pollution

244

 

Using Energy Efficiently

246

 

Exploiting Urban Wastes

250

 

Perceiving the Whole

254

 

A Plan for Every City

260

 

Epilogue / Visions of the Future

263

 

The Infernal City

265

 

The Celestial City

268

 

NOTES

279

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

290

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

315

 

INDEX

321

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